## Stages of statistical study explained

According to the figure, interpretation of data the last stage in order to draw some conclusion. One has to go through the four stages to arrive at the final stage; they are collection, organisation, presentation and analysis. First stage collection of data refers to gathering some statistical facts by different methods. The second stage is to organise the data so that collected information is easily intelligible. This is the arrangement of data in a systematic order after editing.

Third Stages of statistical study is presentation of data.

After collection and organisation the data are to be reproduced by various methods of presentation, namely, tables, graphs, diagrams, etc. so that different characteristics of data can easily be understood on the basis of their quality and uniformity. Fourth stage of statistical study is the analysis of data. Calculation of a value by different methods and tools for various purposes is made to arrive at the last stage of study, viz., interpretation of data.

In brief, statistics is a method of taking decisions on the basis of numerical data properly collected, organised, presented, analysed and interpreted.

Today, Computer technology has revolutionised our modern living and simplified a lot of our manual efforts in day-to-day life like reservation of railway and airline tickets, payment of electricity, water and mobile bills by using the Internet. Computer is a boon to the modern civilisation. The development of computer softwares, especially programmed for statistical studies has been very Helpful in collection, organisation, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.

**Q. Why does an educated man depend on statistics ?**

Ans. Modern educated man wants to put his views in a focused and precise manner and provide full information on the subject he is discussing or writing about. Hence, he uses statistical statements.

**Q. Give examples of a statistical statement. Mention two of its features.**

Ans. A statement like, “on 18th July 08, because of heavy rain, out of 52 students of -. Class XI B, only 8 boys out of the 32 enrolled were present and the rest of the class including the girls were absent”, is a statistical statement.

**Q. Explain three features of statistical data. Three distinct features of statistical data are :**

Ans. (a) Aggregate of facts. Statistical data are the aggregate figures of a fact over a period of time like per capita income of India (not the income of a single man) since 1950-51.

- Numerically expressed. Statistical data are quantitatively expressed not qualitatively like high or low.
- Collected or estimated with some degree of accuracy. A theoretically sound method should be used to collect statistical data.

**Q. How is statistics useful to a policy maker ?**

Ans. The policy makers use statistical tools for policy appraisal. If a new policy is implemented or modifications are done in an existing policy, its effect on the beneficiaries is judged by statistical methods.

**Q. What role does statistics play in economic modelling ?**

Ans. Economic modelling is a technique to explain economic activities like consumption, production, etc. The association between demand and its determinants or the amount produced and the inputs is studied by economic modelling. Statistics help in estimating those relationships quantitatively.

**Q. How does statistics help the government in reducing inequality in income distribution in a country ?**

Ans. Statistical tools measure the extent of inequality present in an economy. Based on those estimates the government adopts different steps to reduce the inequality in the country.